Considering the hurdles of experiments with more than one atomic species, the temptation arises of rephrasing Arthur L. Schawlow: "Double-species Bose-Einstein condensates are condensates with one species too many". We think otherwise. Quantum mixtures allow the investigation of a wealth of genuinely quantum phenomena: mixed phases of superfluids and Mott insulators, impurities and polarons, chemistry at zero-temperature.

Lee-Huang-Yang energy for heteronuclear mixtures

We show that the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) energy functional for a heteronuclear Bose mixture can be accurately approximated by an expression that has the same functional form as in the homonuclear case. It is characterized by two exponents, which can be treated as fitting parameters. We demonstrate that the values of these parameters which preserve the invariance under permutation of the two atomic species are exactly those of the homonuclear case. Deviations from the actual expression of LHY energy functional are discussed quantitatively.

F. Minardi et al.
Effective expression of the Lee-Huang-Yang energy functional for heteronuclear mixtures
Phys. Rev. A 100 063636 (2019)

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